General Studies Lectures
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  1. GST111 – Use of English

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Introduction The use of language in human communication is inevitable as long as one is a social being. The term communication is believed to have been derived from the Latin word ‘communicare’ which means to ‘participate, share, and impart’. Writing is a communicative tool which involves the putting down of our thoughts and ideas which we wish to share with people on paper through the use of alphabetical symbols.

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  2. GST122 – Use of English 2

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Lesson 1: Logical Presentation Of Papers The art of acknowledging our source(s) of information is called documentation. Every book you consult should be properly documented. Failure to acknowledge your source of information is termed PLAGIARISM

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  3. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 1

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    LOGICAL PRESENTATION OF PAPERS Research writing is an academic exercise that involves the review of literature. It is a daunting task and care should be taken during the course of writing the paper. It involves the consultation of online and printed book forms. These reviewed literature are products of someone else’s thinking and; therefore, important that they are referenced. During the course of this lecture, the methods of citation and the intricacies of research documentation will be treated.

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  4. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 10

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    THE CLAUSE A clause is a group of words which contain a finite verb. Basically, there are two types of English clauses; the main clause and the subordinate clause.

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  5. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 11

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    THE ART OF PUBLIC SPEAKING AND ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication involves an interpersonal mode of communication which uses speech as its primary medium. Public speaking is an example of oral communication. Public speaking is a form of oral communication in which a speaker talks to a group of people who may not be familiar with him. Most often than not, nervousness creeps in when most persons are presenting a speech. This is normal and constant practice can effectively deal with this fright. Most persons believe that public speaking is a gift and that some persons are born with it. In fact, these myths are erroneous as it can be learnt.

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  6. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 12

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    REPORT WRITING A report is an account given of a particular matter especially in the form of an official document. Reports are gotten after an investigation by an appointed person. There are different types of report. They include periodic report which are written either weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly about the state of an organization, progress report which are written at regular intervals on the progress of a particular project.

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  7. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 13

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    SUMMARY WRITING Summary is a reconstruction of a piece of writing in as few words as possible which would carry the main points of the passage. It is a short account of what someone has said without repeating the entire phrase (verbatim) but a paraphrasing of an earlier speech/sentence.

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  8. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 2

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Mechanical Rules in Research Writing Mechanical rules of research writing refers to the techniques a researcher must observe so as to produce a sound research work. They are minor issues but when handled lackadaisically results to producing a work full of errors which is likely to be rejected by the project supervisor.

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  9. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 3

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    PHONETICS Phonetics as a branch of linguistics centers on speech production and its characteristics. It also tries to describe, and classify these speech sounds into their respective groups. Basically, the study of phonetics is from three angles: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics. Articulatory phonetics is the domain of speech production (what happens during the production of speech?), acoustic phonetics centers on speech transmission (how is speech transmitted?) while auditory phonetics is on speech perception (what does the hearer perceive when a sound is uttered?).

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  10. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 4

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    The Sounds of English The English language has forty-four sounds and they are divided into twenty vowels and twenty-four consonants. Vowels are sounds which are produced with the vibration of the vocal cords. It is divided into two- pure vowels (monopthongs) and impure vowels (diphthongs).

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  11. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 5

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    The English Syllable A syllable is a unit of sound. Osisanwo describes the syllable as “… a segment of speech that consists of a vowel with or without one or more accompanying sounds which precedes or follows it” (2009:72). Basically syllables are divided into two- the stressed and unstressed. The stressed syllable usually carries the force when it is being articulated unlike the unstressed whose force is not as prominent as the latter.

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  12. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 6

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Stress and Intonation Stress is described as the breath force with which a syllable is pronounced. A word in which the breath force is heaped on the first syllable has the primary stress placed on it while the syllable that has lower degree of stress is the unstressed syllable.

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  13. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 7

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LEXIS AND STRUCTURE In this study, we will be looking at the spoken and written word forms and their distinctions; lexemes and their word forms and finally a distinction between the lexical and grammatical words will be studied.

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  14. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 8

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Word Formation The English language is a dynamic language which allows for the constant creation of new words. The creation of new words in a language is a morphological process. There are several processes of creating new words in English. They include: affixation, blending, conversion, reduplication, acronym, clipping, etc. However, our focus in this course is affixation.

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  15. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 9

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    FIGURES OF SPEECH Figures of speech are figurative language used in writing or in speech to paint a colourful picture of a situation. They often evoke a mental picture in the mind of the reader/listener as the case maybe.

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