Lectures
 /  Lectures
  1. ACC111 – Introduction to Accounting

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    NAture and scope of accounting Book-keeping is the systematic recording of transactions on a daily basis in the appropriate books. It is an integral part of accounting.

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  2. ACC212 – Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting – Lecture 1

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    NATURE, SCOPE AND FUNCTIONS OF COST AND MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING: There is no clear different between Cost Accounting and Management Accounting as both are sometime used interchangeably. They serve both purpose to service management in making decisions, planning, control and ensure that standards and budgets are adequately maintained.

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  3. ACC212 – Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting – Lecture 2

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    Meaning of cost: Cost is defined by (ICMA) as the amount of expenditure (actual or notional) incurred on or attributable to a specific thing or activity. Glauter and Underwood defined cost as essentially money measurement of the sacrifices which an organization has make in order to achieve it objectives.

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  4. ACC212 – Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting – Lecture 3

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    STANDARD COSTING AND BUDGETARY CONTROL: Variance: This is the different between standard performance and actual performance. It can either be favourable or unfavourable also known as adverse.

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  5. ACC212 – Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting – Lecture 4

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    THE ELEMENT AND CLASSIFICATION OF COST: There are three elements of cost which are material, labour and overhead. There are the key areas which are used in determining the actual cost of goods bought or services rendered.

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  6. ACC212 – Introduction to Cost and Management Accounting – Lecture 5

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    MATERIAL CONTROL AND PRICING: The purchase department receives and processes purchase requisitions from the storekeeper, the production department, the plant engineer and other heads of departments.

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  7. ACC213 – Introduction to Financial Accounting

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    CONSIGNMENT ACCOUNTS A Consignment of goods is the sending of goods by the owner to his agent who then collects, stores and sells them unbehalf of the owner.

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  8. ACC215 – Business concept of a system – Lecture 2

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    DEFINITION A system is an orderly grouping of interdependent components linked together according to plan in order to achieve a specific goal or objective. The word system is from a Greek word “systema” which means an organized relationship among functioning units or components. A system has always a specific goal or objective which it must accomplish. The goals could be more than one.

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  9. ACC215 – System Analysis And Design – Lecture 1

    AUSTIN .O. AMUGHORO

    INTRODUCTION System analysis and design involves the process of examining a system or business situation with the purpose of improving it through better procedures and methods. It relates to shaping an organization, improving the performance of an organization and achieving objectives for profitability and growth.

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  10. ACC223 – Introduction to Finance

    MONI Matthew Osedebamhen

    DEFINITION & MEANING OF FINANCE:Finance is a field that deals with the study of investments. It includes the dynamic of assets and liabilities over time under conditions of different degree of uncertainty and risk. Finance can also be defined as the science of money management. It is a discipline that is concerned with determing value and making decisions.

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  11. ACC223 – Introduction to Finance – Lecture 2

    MONI Matthew Osedebamhen

    SCOPE OF FINANCE FUNCTION/FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT. Estimating financial requirements: The first task of financial manager is to estimate short term and long term needs (financial requirements) of the business, for this purpose, he will prepare a financial plan for present as well as for the future. The amount required for purchasing fixed assets as well as needs of funds for working, capital will have to be ascertained. The estimation will have to be based on sound financial principles so that neither there are inadequate nor excess funds with the concern.

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  12. ACC223 – Introduction to Finance – Lecture 3

    MONI Matthew Osedebamhen

    GOALS/OBJECTIVES OF THE FIRM Every manager must make sure that the firm maximizes the objectives for which the firm was set up by the owners (shareholders). The objective allows us to measure the impact of any decision made in the firm. Recall that in finance three key decisions are usually made investment, financing and dividends decisions. They are made to decide where to raise funds (Finance decision), how much profit to pay out in dividends (dividend decision) and where to invest (investment decision).

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  13. ACC223 – Introduction to Finance – Lecture 4

    MONI Matthew Osedebamhen

    CAPITAL BUDGETTING This involves project generation, project evaluation, selection, commiting of funds into selected ones, and project implementation. Project generation involves looking for new projects, may be to expand existing facilities, new lines of products or reduce cost of production. Project evaluation: Estimating the cash in flows and cash out flow of a project proposal and choosing appropriate criterion to measure the profitability of the proposals.

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  14. Analysis of development in the pre colonial and post colonial periods with regard to the development and social organization.

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction: It has been viewed by some Eurocentric writers that pre-colonial West African economy was stagnant, subsistence and that it lacked real market status before British colonization. This argument stems from some anthropological perceptions (substantivist stand point) that the main sector of this economy was basically subsistence agriculture, which had been made stagnant as a result of application of simple technology without organized specialization. Production target is said to ensure human existence with little or no exchange as a result of limited output1.

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  15. APPROACHES TO PSYCHOLOGY

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    Evolutionary Approach : Is the perspective that psychological characteristics of human and non-human animals arose through natural selection. Most recent development, pioneered by David Buss Focus – How the natural selection of traits promotes the perpetuation of one’s genes

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  16. BASIC ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF THE SOCIETY

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    What to Produce The first central problem of an economy is to decide what goods and services are to be produced and in what quantities. This involves allocation of scarce resources in relation to the composition of total output in the economy. Since resources are scarce, the society has to decide about the goods to be produced: wheat, cloth, roads, television, power, buildings, and so on.

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  17. BCH201 – General Biochemistry 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    INTENDED OUTCOME:At the end of this lecture the students should be able: a) Derive the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. b) Do simple calculations based on the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation.

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  18. BCH201 – General Biochemistry 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    INTENDED OUTCOME: At the end of this lecture the students should be able: a) Discuss the methods for the isolation of protein of interest. b) State any three techniques for the purification of protein isolates. c) State any three techniques for the identification of the purified protein isolates.

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  19. BCH201 SHORT HISTORY AND DEFINITION OF BIOCHEMISTRY

    AKPOVONA E. AMBROSE

    Introduction: Biochemistry is one course that unfolds it self at the level far beyond the boundaries of visibility and tangibility. although, its reactions are unfelt by our nominal senses, yet they form the basis for the regulation of the macroscopic and microscopic biotic world. It describes the coming together and separation of unit molecules with the concomitant consumption or release of energy currency that drives life processes

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  20. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    STRUCTURAL LIPIDS: They form important components of biomembranes. These biomembranes are bilayers. They are amphipathic in nature.

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  21. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    INTRODUCTION TO LIPIDS: Food nutrients are essential to human existence and these food nutrients are classified into six classes, viz; Carbohydrate, Protein, Fats and oil, Vitamins, Minerals, Water. Interestingly, fats and oils fall under a special class of biomolecules called LIPIDS.

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  22. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    CLASSIFICATION OF LIPIDS: Lipids can be classified based on their function or structure. On the basis of their structure, lipids are classified into; Simple lipids, Compound lipids, Derived lipids. On the basis of their function, lipids are classified into; Storage lipids, Structural lipids, Essential lipids, Special lipids

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  23. BCH202 – General Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    STORAGE LIPIDS: 1. Fats and oils: Lipids are stored mostly as fats and oils in animals. In plants, they are stored as oils. These fats and oils are usually in the form of triglycerides (triacylglycerols). They are usually found in vegetable oils, dairy products and animal fats. Triacylglycerols are esters of glycerol. Usually three fatty acids are esterified to single glycerol backbone or moiety.

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  24. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 1

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    HYDROGENATION: Hydrogenation is a chemical reaction that involves the addition of molecular hydrogen (H2) to another compound or element usually in the presence of catalyst such as palladium, nickel and platinum. In the absence of catalyst, it is carried out at a very high temperature. Hydrogenation is commonly employed to reduced or saturate mainly organic compounds.

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  25. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 2

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    OXIDATION AND RANCIDITY OF FATTY ACIDS: Food deterioration has been linked to lipid oxidation. Generally, meat as well as fats and oils deterioration is caused by the reaction of lipids with molecular oxygen, light, bacterial etc leading to the formation of off flavor and unpleasant taste. The effect of this lipid oxidation is called RANCIDITY. Rancidity begins immediately after the animal is slaughtered and this chemical process continues during frozen storage, though more slowly at lower temperature

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  26. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 3

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    ASSESSING THE QUALITY OF LIPIDS (FATS AND OILS): Several methods have been adopted to assess the quality of fats and oils. This assessment gives an ideal of the freshness and what the oil would be best used for.

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  27. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 4

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    EICOSANOIDS: Eicosanoids are a group of signaling substance derived from 20C compounds arachidonic acid. They consist of the prostaglandins (PG), thromboxanes (TX), leukotrienes (LT) and lipoxins (LX). Prostaglandins and thromboxanes are collectively refered to as Prostanoids. Prostaglandins were originally shown to be synthesized in the prostate gland, thromboxanes from platelets (thrombocytes) and leukotrienes from leukocytes. The lipoxins on the other hand are inflammation resolving eicosanoids synthesized through lipoxygenase interactions (hence the derivation of the name).

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  28. BCH202 -GENERAL BIOCHEMISTRY (LIPIDS IN FOCUS) – LECTURE 5

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    SYNTHESIS OF EICOSANOIDS: Eicosanoids can be produced by all mammalian cells except the erythrocytes. These molecules are extremely potent, able to cause profound physiological effects at very dilute concentrations. Eicosanoids are not stored and they function locally at the site of synthesis, through receptor-mediated G-protein linked signaling pathways.

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  29. BCH204 – Functional Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    METABOLISM OF LIPIDS: Metabolism is a term used to describe all chemical reactions involved in maintaining the living state of the cells and the organism. Metabolism is divided into two major parts. These are catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism involves the breakdown of biomolecules to obtain energy.

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  30. BCH204 – Functional Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    LIPOPROTEINS IN LIPID TRANSPORT: Lipids are hydrophobic in nature. There is a need for transport agents to carry lipids in aqueous environments. This makes lipoproteins super important. Oops! What exactly are lipoproteins? Lipoproteins or lipoprotein complexes are transport agents that carry lipids in the bloodstream. Interestingly, only a minute portion of lipids is detectable in blood. The protein component of lipoprotein is synthesized in the liver and intestinal mucosal.

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  31. BCH204 – Functional Biochemistry 2 – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    STORAGE AND METABOLISM OF ENERGY STORES IN ADIPOCYTES: Do you know that there are interesting cells in the body that store excess lipids in the body? These cells are called adipocytes. They constitute approximately one-half of the cells in the adipose tissue with the remaining cells being blood and endothelial cells, adipose precursor cells of varying degrees of differentiation and fibroblasts.

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  32. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 1

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    INTRODUCTION: In humans, the degradation (digestion) of ingested proteins to their constituent amino acids occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. Digestion is the chemical breakdown of large food molecules (protein) into smaller molecules (amino acids) that can be used by cells. The breakdown occurs when certain specific enzymes are mixed with the food. Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds. No digestion of protein takes place in the mouth, it begins in the stomach. Acid, alkaline, heat, alcohol, and agitation can disrupt the chemical forces that stabilize proteins and can cause them to lose their shape (denature). Denaturing of proteins happens during food preparation (cooking, whipping, adding acids) or digestion (in the stomach with hydrochloric acid).

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  33. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 2

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    NITROGEN BALANCE AND CELLULAR STRATEGIES OF DEAMINATION: Nitrogen balance is defined as the difference between the nitrogen intake and the nitrogen output. Intake refers to the nitrogen of the food and output means the discharge of nitrogen as sweat, milk, vomiting, loss of hair, faeces and menstrual fluid. Nitrogen equilibrium occurs when nitrogen intake equals nitrogen output. Positive nitrogen balance exists when intake exceeds output. This condition occurs whenever new tissue is synthesized such as during growth of the young and in pregnancy. Insulin and growth hormone also influence positive nitrogen balance.

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  34. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 3

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    CELLULAR STRATEGIES OF DEAMINATION: Transaminases catalyze the transfer of an α-amino group from an α-amino acid to an α-keto acid. These enzymes, also called aminotransferases, generally channel α-amino groups from a variety of amino acids to α-keto-glutarate for conversion into NH+4. Aspartate and Alanine aminotransferase are one of the most important of these transferases because they are used as markers of liver injury when found in higher amount in the serum. Aspartate aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of aspartate to α-ketoglutarate. Alanine aminotransferase catalyzes the transfer of the amino group of alanine to α- ketoglutarate.

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  35. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 4

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    FATE OF CARBON SKELETON AND ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS CATABOLISM: Once amino acids are deaminated, the carbon skeletons of the twenty amino acids undergo oxidation in the cell to compounds that can enter the TCA cycle for oxidation to carbon (iv) oxide and water. The carbon skeletons of the diverse set of 20 DNA coded amino acids are channeled into only seven (7) molecules: succinyl CoA, fumarate, oxaloacetate, α-ketoglutarate, pyruvate, acetyl CoA, and acetoacetyl CoA. The reactions of these pathways require several cofactors, including tetrahydrofolate and Sadenosylmethionine (involved in one-carbon transfer reactions) and tetrahydrobiopterin ( that participates in the oxidation of phenylalanine by phenylalanine hydroxylase). The carbon skeletons of amino acids are transferred into the citric acid cycle through five (5) metabolic intermediates, these include succinyl-CoA, fumarate, oxaloacetate, acetyl-CoA, and α-ketoglutarate.

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  36. BCH204 – FUNCTIONAL BIOCHEMISTRY II – LECTURE 5

    Mr. Francis Irabor

    Glutamine Transport Ammonia in the Blood Stream: In the body high levels of ammonia can be toxic. In the brain, metabolism of nucleotides produces ammonia (NH3) which can be converted to glutamine by the action of glutamine synthetase. This reaction requires ATP. The first step for this reaction involves glutamate and ATP which react to form ƴ-glutamyl phosphate intermediate and ADP. The ƴ-glutamyl phosphate further reacts with ammonia to produce glutamine, which is a nontoxic form of ammonia (NH3) and inorganic phosphate. Glutamine concentration in the blood is higher than other amino acids because it transports ammonia and also serves as a source of amino groups in a variety of biosynthetic reactions. The NH3 from extra hepatic tissues is transported in the blood to the liver by means of glutamine. In the liver mitochondrion, the ammonia is released by glutaminase from glutamine and disposed of by urea synthesis.

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  37. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    ELECTROPHORESIS: The term electrophoresis is coined from two root words ‘electro’ meaning electricity or flow of current and ‘phoresis’ means moving through. Therefore Electrophoresis can be defined as the separation of the components of a substance as it moves through a support medium under the influence of an electric field.

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  38. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    GEL ELECTROPHORESIS: Gel electrophoresis is a top choice, when analytes of large molecular size are to be identified and quantified. It is an essential technique in the isolation and purification of proteins. Two major types of gel are used commonly. They are agarose and polyacrylamide gels.

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  39. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    CHROMATOGRAPHY: Chromatographic techniques form a group of important analytical techniques used by researchers in biochemistry. Chromatography is derived from two root words ‘chrome’ which means colour and ‘graphy’ which means a field of study. Therefore, chromatography literally means a field of study that deals with the analysis of mostly coloured analytes.

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  40. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 4

    Alegun Olaniyi

    PAPER CHROMATOGRAPHY: This is a simulation of paper electrophoresis. The support medium or stationary phase is a paper e.g. Whatman No. 1 and No. 3 filter paper strips, pure cellulose paper, modified cellulose paper like DEAE cellulose, CM cellulose and resin impregnated papers, amberlite, etc. It is a qualitative technique.

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  41. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 5

    Alegun Olaniyi

    SIZE EXCLUSION CHROMATOGRAPHY: This is a simulation of gel electrophoresis, where the support medium is a gel. In size exclusion chromatography, the support medium or stationary phase is a gel. Hydrophilic cross linked gels are used. Examples include acrylamide, agarose and dextran. Sephadex (dextran) is widely used by researchers.

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  42. BCH304 – Analytical methods in Biochemistry – Lecture 6

    Alegun Olaniyi

    AFFINITY CHROMATOGRAPHY: Affinity chromatography is a replica of ion exchange chromatography. In this case, the column is packed with materials that have high affinity for the proteins to be separated. These materials could be co-enzymes (e.g. NAD to purify certain enzymes) or antibodies (i.e. used to purify proteins that act as antigens to these antibodies).

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  43. BCH305 Determination of the Amount of ATP Derived from the Complete Oxidation of Fatty Acids

    AKPOVONA E. AMBROSE

    Introduction: The complete oxidation of fatty acid yields carbon (iv) oxide and water with the concomitant release of energy in molecular form of ATP. Long chain saturated fatty acids are degraded in a repetitious process (-oxidation) that yields two-carbon units called acetyl-CoA which are fed into the TCA cycle.

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  44. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 1

    Alegun Olaniyi

    THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM: The mammalian system has been developed in such a way that special signal molecules are generated at one end of the body and they act at another end. This is a stimulation of the telephone transmission. Sound is generated at one end (sender) and received at another end (recipient). Beautifully, certain chemical substances called hormones are released from specific glands (i.e. sender) and act on target cells in another location (i.e. recipient).

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  45. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 2

    Alegun Olaniyi

    cAMP DEPENDENT HORMONES: These hormones bind with cell surface receptors. The cell surface receptors are mainly G-protein coupled receptors. They are coupled to an intracellular protein called Adenylate cyclase (AC). G-protein is a trimetric protein that serves to couple the cell surface receptors to AC. The monomeric units of G-protein are G-alpha, G-beta and G-gamma subunits. The alpha subunit possesses a catalytic property, which on activation, converts GTP to GDP and Pi. Activation results in the ß-ɤ subunits cleaving from α- subunit.

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  46. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 3

    Alegun Olaniyi

    TYROSINE KINASE DEPENDENT HORMONES: This is another unique mechanism adopted by certain hormones like Insulin, Somatostatin, EGF, FGF, IGF, etc. Insulin is usually a major case study, when tyrosine kinase dependent hormone is been discussed. The insulin receptor is a transmembrane receptor. It possesses two alpha subunits and two beta subunits. Insulin usually binds to the alpha subunits.

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  47. BCH312 – Principles of Endocrinology – Lecture 4

    Alegun Olaniyi

    AMINE HORMONES: Amine hormones or amino acid derived hormones are hormones that are derived from amino acids. They include thyroid hormones, catecholamines, serotonin and melatonin and histamine.

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  48. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 1

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    PHYTOCHEMISTRY: World Health Organization defines medicinal plant as any plant in which one or more of its organs, contains substances that can be used for therapeutic purposes, or which are precursors for chemopharmaceutical semi synthesis. Such plants will have one or more of its parts including leaves, roots, rhizomes, stems, barks, flowers, fruits, grains or seeds, employed in the control or treatment of a disease condition and therefore contains chemical components that are medically active. These bioactive compounds which are secondary metabolites and are non nutritional are often referred to as phytochemicals (‘phyto‐‘ from Greek ‐ phyto meaning ‘plant’).

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  49. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 2

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    FLAVONOIDS: Flavonoids are low molecular weight polyphenolic secondary metabolites that are produced by plants. There are over 10,000 structural variants of Flavonoids. They are synthesized by the polypropanoid pathway with phenylalanine as startup molecule. Chemically, flavonoids have the general structure of a 15-carbon skeleton, which consists of two phenyl rings (A and B) and heterocyclic ring (C). A typical example is given below.

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  50. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 3

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    BIOSYNTHESIS OF CAROTENOID PIGMENTS: Carotenoids are example of secondary metabolites synthesized by plants. They are integral components of higher plant photosystems, and their composition in photosynthetic plant tissues (lutein, β-carotene, violaxanthin and neoxanthin, in order of abundance) has been remarkably conserved throughout evolution. They are the second most abundant naturally occurring pigments on earth, with more than 750 members. Carotenoids range from colorless to yellow, orange, and red, with variations reflected in many fruits, flowers, and vegetables, which contribute to their economic value as well.

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  51. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 4

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    UNUSUAL AMINO ACIDS IN PLANTS: Twenty amino acids are found universally distributed as protein constituents in all living organisms. These 20 amino acids are encoded by the genetic code and are incorporated into protein during translation. In other words, they are required for protein synthesis and they are considered typical components of protein. In addition to these 20, a few others occur frequently as metabolic intermediate, while others are synthesized but are not incorporated into protein.

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  52. BCH316 – PLANT BIOCHEMISTRY – LECTURE 5

    Mr. Ebohon Osamudiamen

    NUCLEOTIDE STRUCTURE: Nucleic acids which are DNA and RNA are assembled from nucleotides. Nucleotides consist of three components: a five-carbon sugar (pentose), a nitrogenous base and phosphate. Nucleoside is a nucleotide without a phosphate group.

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  53. BFN222 – Elements of Banking – Lecture 1

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    Meaning and Concept of Banking Today, the term, bank, means different things to different people in different economies. In order to reconcile the divergent views on the meaning and characteristics of banks, the banking laws in each economy provides operational definition and functional classification which governs banking practices in the economy. In practical terms, a bank means what the operating banking law in an economy defines as a bank (Ezeuduji, 2000:8). To many people, a bank refers to an institution which accepts deposits from the public and in turn advances loans by creating credit.

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  54. BFN224 – Business Finance

    VINCENT AFURE AKPOTOR

    Introduction Finance was originally considered as a part of Economics. However, the increase in population and the subsequent upward surge in demand for goods and services propel producers to begin to look out for funds outside the firm. Added to the above, the emergence of new technologies and new industries the need for financing industries brought the subject out as a discipline and today finance stands as a discipline in its own capacity. This is because of the need to develop the needed expertise to adequately raise and use fund in a beneficial way to both the firm and economy.

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  55. BFN224 – Business Finance – Lecture 2

    VINCENT AFURE AKPOTOR

    CAPITAL BUDGETING Generally, assets are classified as either current or fixed asset. Current asset are those assets whose life span does not exceed one year, while fixed or capital asset are those whose life span extend to a number of years. These capital asset are used by the firm in the physical process of producing goods and services and they are used for a number of years. The acquisition of capital assets calls for a huge sum of money. As a result the huge capital outlay involved, firm carefully plan and evaluate expenditure for capital assets.

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  56. BFN224 – Business Finance – Lecture 3

    VINCENT AFURE AKPOTOR

    CAPITAL STRUCTURE DECISIONS There are various means used for raising funds needed for the smooth running of a firm. These funds can be classified into two broad groups; namely the short term and long term funds. The short term and long term sources of funds are referred to as the financial structure of the firm. Thus the financial structure refers to the way a firm’ asset are financed. In effect it is the entire right hand side of the balance sheet. The capital structure on the other hand, represents the permanent financing of the firm.

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  57. BFN224 – Business Finance – Lecture 4

    VINCENT AFURE AKPOTOR

    LEVERAGE EFFECT ON EARNINGS FOR SHARE Financial leverage is defined as the use of fixed charges sources of funds, such as debt and preference shares along with shareholders’ equity in the capital structure. It can also be referred to as trading on equity. The primary motive of a firm for using financing leverage is to magnify the shareholders earnings under favorable economic conditions.

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  58. BFN224 – Business Finance – Lecture 5

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    FINANCIAL STATEMENT ANALYSISFinancial statement shows a firm’s accounting value for a specific period of time. Our purpose here is to examine the relevant financial statements and point out some of its relevant features which form a key source of information for financial decisions. Financial statement analysis is a technique through which financial managers obtain useful information that aid decision making towards the achievement of organizational objectives. Such information include financial ratios and working capital movement.

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  59. BFN226 – The financial system – Lecture 1

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    The Nigeria financial system The domestic financial system of any economy refers to a set of institutional and other arrangements that transfer savings from those who generate them to those who ultimately use them for investment or consumption purposes. It is made up of a mechanism for organizing and managing the payments for current and capital transactions. a mechanism for the collections and transfer of savings by banks and other depository institutions. Arrangement covering the activities of capital markets with respect to the issues of trading of marketable and transferable securities.

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  60. BFN226 – The financial system – Lecture 2

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    THE CONCEPT OF INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS International Business is made up of two components: international trade and investment and international finance. By international trade and investment we mean the exchange of goods and services among countries and the movement of the factor of production across national boundaries. The study of the causes, reasons and the consequences of international exchange of goods and services and the international movement of the factors of production are the pure or real theory of trade. It examines the causes, volume, direction and composition of trade. It analyses the effect of trade restrictions.

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  61. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    INTRODUCTION: An animal is either a vertebrate or an Invertebrate. This categorization of animals is based on the presence or absence of the vertebral column, usually referred to as BACKBONE or spine in highly evolved animals. The animals which possess vertebral column are called VETEBRATES. Conversely, those animals, which do not possess the vertebral column are called INVERTEBRATES.

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  62. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 2

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM ANNELIDA: Annelids was derived from Greek word “annelus” meaning little rings. Annelids are segmented worms (i.e. the building of a body from similar segemnts). The word was first used by Lamarck for higher segmented worms. Examples includes Earthworm, ragworm, leeches, clamworms etc. Two-thirds of all annelids (Phylum Annelida) live in the sea (about 8000 species) and most of the rest (about 3100) are earthworms.

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  63. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 3

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM ARTHROPODA: Arthropoda is from a Greek word (Arthron, joint + podes feet). The Phylum Arthropoda is currently the largest and most species diverse group of the animal Kingdom surpassing in the number of species of all the other phyla combined. It contains over 700,000 species. The animals belonging to this Phylum are found all over the globe at altitudes of over 6,500 meters to depths of over 6,000 meters below sea level.

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  64. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 4

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM COELENTERATA (CNIDERIA): The coelenterates include more than 9000 living species. They are all aquatic, mostly marine but also with a few fresh water forms. They are often found abundantly in warm temperature or subtropical waters. These animals are carnivores, they actively do not move from place to place, rather they lie in wait and capture their prey (e.g. fishes, crustaceans) with the tentacles that ring their mouth. Examples include jelly fishes, sea anemones, corals, hydroids etc.

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  65. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 5

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM ECHINODERMATA: The Phylum includes some 6000 species. This group includes star fishes, sea urchins, sea-lilies and others, all of which live in the sea. Some of the Echinoderms crawl slowly in the shallow waters along the shore or lie partially concealed in the holes of rocks while other like sea-lilies are found attached deep down at the bottom.

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  66. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 6

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM MOLLUSCA: The word Mollusc refers to soft body. There are at least 110,000 named species. They are the second largest phylum except for the arthropods. Mollusks are wide spread and often abundant in marine, freshwater, and terrestrial habitats. It is a very diverse group which includes slow moving snails and slugs, relatively sedentary bivalves such as clams, and highly active cephalopods such as squids, Octopus etc. It ranges from almost microscopic organisms to giant squid.

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  67. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 7

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM PLATYHELMINTHES: Characteristic Features of the Phylum Platyhelminthes. They are bilaterally symmetrical, Their body are dorsiventrally flattened; known as flatworms, Triploblastic animals – made up of three body layers, They lack body cavity hence called Acoelomate, They have complete reproductive organs, Digestive system is absent in some; and when present has only the mouth but no anus, Nervous system are ladder-like, with simple sense organs, They have no respiratory, circulatory or skeletal system, They have a proto-nephridial type of excretory system.

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  68. BIO002 – Invertebrate Biology – Lecture 8

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    PHYLUM PROTOZOA: Protozoa refers to single-celled eukaryotic organisms, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris. The name protozoa means “first animals” and has been derived from two Greek words, PROTOS, meaning first and ZOON, meaning animal. They are looked upon as the most primitive form of life, appearing first in the evolutionary history. They range in size from 1 to 106 micrometers.

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  69. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 1

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PLANT KINGDOM Thallophytes are a polyphyletic group (i.e. a group of organisms descended from more than one ancestors) of non-mobile organisms traditionally described as “thalloid plants”, “relatively simple plants” or “lower plants”. It is often regarded as a former division of the plant kingdom containing relatively simple plants, i.e. those with no leaves, stems, or roots. Examples of thallophytes are algae, bacteria, fungi, and lichens.

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  70. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 2

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    FUNGI Fungi can be single celled or very complex multicellular eukaryotic organisms. They are found in just about any habitat but most live on the land, mainly in soil or on plant material rather than in sea or fresh water. Examples include mushrooms, molds, rhizopus and yeasts.

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  71. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 3

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    BRYOPHYTA (Liverworts and Mosses) Bryophytes are non-vascular seedless plants that include mosses, liverworts and hornworts. They are thought to be the first true plants to have evolved millions of years ago. They have no vascular tissue or wood to give them structural support, nor do they have large leaves or flowers or cones. However, bryophytes still have an ecological significance. They play important roles in minimizing erosion near streams, water and nutrient cycling in tropical forests.

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  72. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 4

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperms are seed-bearing vascular plants. Their reproductive structures are flowers in which the ovules are enclosed in an ovary. Angiosperms are found in almost every habitat from forests and grasslands to sea margins and deserts. Angiosperms display a huge variety of life forms including trees, herbs, submerged aquatics, bulbs and epiphytes.

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  73. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 5

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    GERMINATION Germination is the process by which the embryo wakes up from the state of dormancy and takes to active life. OR Germination is the process whereby seeds, spores or vegetative parts of plants develop into new plants.

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  74. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 6

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PLANT ORGANS: ROOTS, STEMS & LEAVES Plants have specialized organs that help them survive and reproduce in a great diversity of habitats. Major organs of most plants include roots, stems, and leaves.

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  75. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 7

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    RESPIRATION Respiration may be defined as the process whereby glucose is broken down to release energy. OR Respiration is the chemical oxidation of food substances to release carbon dioxide, water and energy (ATP).

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  76. BIO002 – Plant Biology – Lecture 8

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    NUTRITION Nutrition is the process of taking in food and using it for growth, metabolism, and repair. OR Nutrition is the process of taking nutrients from the food we eat.

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  77. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 1

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM MONERA They are single celled, motile or non-motile microscopic organisms with no definite nucleus. Examples includes Bacteria, Blue-green algae, Actinomycetes.

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  78. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 2

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    REPRODUCTION IN BACTERIA Bacteria reproduce by binary fission. In this process the bacterium, which is a single cell, divides into two identical daughter cells. Binary fission begins when the DNA of the bacterium divides into two (replicates). The bacterial cell then elongates and splits into two daughter cells each with identical DNA to the parent cell.

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  79. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 3

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM FUNGI They are non-motile organisms with thread-like structures or hyphae. Some are plant- like but cannot carry out photosynthesis due to absence of chlorophyll and they obtain food through the surface of living or non-living organism by absorption. They reproduce asexually or sexually. Examples includes: moulds, mushrooms, yeasts etc.

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  80. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 4

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM PROTISTA They are single celled, motile or non-motile organisms that are much larger than the monerans. Also, they possess a complex cell structure with a definite nucleus. Examples include, Chlamydomonas, Amoeba.

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  81. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 5

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    KINGDOM PLANTAE They are non-motile multicellular organisms that usually contain chlorophyll which enables them make their own food by photosynthesis. Plants have indeterminate growth. Examples includes: Mosses, Ferns, Pines, Seed Plants (yam, bean, etc.).

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  82. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 6

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PHYLUM BRYOPHYTA Bryophytes are regarded as primitive land plants that have colonized the terrestrial habitats, although still dependent on water for completion of their life cycles. They produce motile male gametes which require a thin film of water for their motility to reach the non-motile female gamete to accomplish fertilization.

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  83. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 7

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    PHYLUM TRACHEOPHYTA The Tracheophytes are known as vascular plants because they have vascular tissues (xylem and phloem) through which water and nutrients are transported. The division includes the subdivisions; Pteridophyta (spore-bearing vascular plants) and Spermatophyta (seed-bearing plants).

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  84. BIO102 – General Biology 2 – Lecture 8

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    ANGIOSPERMS Angiosperms can be defined as vascular plants with seeds, fruit, and flowers for reproduction. The angiosperms are also known as flowering plants. They occupy every habitat from forests and grassland,to sea margins and deserts. Angiosperms display a huge variety of life forms including trees, herbs, shrubs, vines, bulbs, epiphytes (i.e living on other plants);

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  85. BIO202 – INTRODUCTORY ECOLOGY – LECTURE 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    INTRODUCTION: ECOLOGY AT COMMUNITY LEVEL A community is an assemblage of populations of different species of organisms occupying the same habitat, e.g. community of plants and animals in a rainforest. A population is the unit of natural selection and evolution. The variety of a community is measured as species diversity. How large a population is and how fast it is growing are often used as measures of its health. The population of species in a community interacts with each other in many ways, the most prevalent of which are predation, parasitism and competition.

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  86. BIO204 – Cell Division – Lecture 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    CELL DIVISION PROCESSES IN PROKARYOTIC AND EUKARYOTIC CELLS: All species of organisms’ bacteria, plants in the forest grow and reproduce. From the smallest creatures to the largest, all species produce offspring identical to themselves and pass on the hereditary information that makes them what they are.

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  87. BIO204 – CELL GROWTH

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    CELL Growth: The rates at which materials move through the cell membrane depend on the cell’s surface area and the total area of its cell membrane. However, the rate at which food and oxygen are used up and formation of waste products depends on the cell’s volume. As a cell grows, its internal volume increases faster than its surface area. That is, as a cell becomes bigger, its ratio of surface area to volume decreases. Before a cell gets too large, it divides, forming two “daughter” cells. Cell division is the process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.

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  88. BIO204 – Mitosis

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    Mitosis: In eukaryotic cells, or cells with a nucleus, the stages of the cell cycle are divided into two major phases: interphase and the mitotic (M) phase. During interphase, the cell grows and makes a copy of its DNA. During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell separates its DNA into two sets and divides its cytoplasm, forming two new cells.

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  89. BIO204 – STAGES OF CELL CYCLE (MITOSIS)

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    STAGES OF CELL CYCLE (MITOSIS): During the mitotic (M) phase, the cell divides its copied DNA and cytoplasm to make two new cells. M phase involves two distinct division-related processes: mitosis and cytokinesis. Mitosis is a type of cell division in which one cell (the mother cell) divides to produce two new cells (the daughters) that are genetically identical or copies of itself. In the context of the cell cycle, mitosis is the part of the division process in which the DNA of the cell's nucleus is split into two equal sets of chromosomes.

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  90. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 1

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Microscopy: Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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  91. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 2

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Biological Drawings: Scientific drawings enable you to look at structures and details that might have gone unnoticed. Drawings are especially useful in helping you to understand macro and microscopic features of plants and animals. Biological drawings enables proper recording, organizing, and displays data using an appropriate format Which Includes labelled diagrams, graphs, multimedia etc.

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  92. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 3

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Preparation Of Microscopic Slide: Slides making is an important part of many areas of biological, medical, veterinary and forensic sciences and often times it will be required to prepare different kinds of slides. Specimens may be smears of fluids, thin sections or whole mounts of all or part of an organ or organisms. In all cases the material is mounted on a glass slide prior to its examination.

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  93. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 4

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Collection And Preservation Of Biological Specimens: A biological specimen also known as a biospecimen is an individual or part of an organisim used as an example of its species or type for scientific study or display. A specimen generally refers to a sample of something or quantity which is intended to be similar to and represent an amount of that thing.

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  94. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 5

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Preservation Procedures: Coelenterates are difficult to preserve, Scyphozoa, Siphonophora and Ctenophora are often singularly beautiful in form and colour. The collector must be prepared for work in the field, with note-book and colour sketches. Afterwards, preservation is done in 70% alcohol or 5% formalin, usually a poor best! Smaller hydrozoans such as Obelia and Sertularia are easier to deal with, while the less well protected Hydra can be quickly fixed in Bouin's, warm, not hot.

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  95. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lab 6

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Herbarium Techniques: The collection of plants began in the 16th century. Later, J.P. Tourefort used the term herbarium for plants. So a herbarium is basically a storehouse of botanical specimens, which are arranged in the sequence of an accepted classification system and available for reference or other scientific study.

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  96. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lecture 1

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    Laboratory Safety Rules and Regulations: Laboratory rules and regulations are the general and basic guidelines or code of conduct for safe practices which will guide your safe stay in the laboratory. These safety regulations are intended to prevent or reduce to the barest minimum the chance of an accident and they are compulsory for every person working in the lab.

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  97. BIO205 – Biological Techniques – Lecture 2

    Imoni Aikhenobhoria Cletus

    Microscopy: Microscopy is the technical field of using microscopes to view objects and areas of objects that cannot be seen with the naked eye (objects that are not within the resolution range of the normal eye).

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  98. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 1

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Introduction Seedless plants are simply plants that do not bear or produce seeds. Examples of seedless plants include ferns, horsetails, mosses, and liverworts. These seedless plants may be vascular or non-vascular. Seedless vascular plants are plants that have waxy cuticles, stomata and vascular tissues, but do not produce flowers or seeds.

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  99. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 2

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Algal Phylogeny Algae exhibit an astonishing diversity of form and function. The various groups of algae derive from the merger of previously heterotrophic eukaryotic cells with autotrophic cells through the process of endosymbiosis (a type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism).

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  100. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 3

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Eukaryotic Algae They are algae that possess membrane-bound nucleus and organelles such as, mitochondria, chloroplasts and so on. The respective divisions of eukaryotic algae are discussed.

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  101. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 4

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Reproduction In Algae Reproduction in algae can be vegetative, asexual, or sexual. Vegetative Reproduction: In this type, any vegetative part of the thallus develops into new individual. It does not involve any spore formation and there is no alternation of generations. It is the most common method of reproduction in algae.

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  102. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 5

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Importance Of Algae Role as Primary Producers: Because of their photosynthetic abilities the algae are the primary producers of the aquatic environments. They provide food and energy to the animal life, produce oxygen and take up carbon dioxide produced during respiration which is injurious for living organisms especially fishes.

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  103. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 6

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Fungi The branch of biology that deals with the study of fungi is called mycology. Unlike plants, fungi lack the photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll) and depend on others for food. They play a major role in decomposing dead organisms and cleaning the environment, to make a sustainable place for other living entities.

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  104. BOT202 – Seedless Plants – Lecture 7

    Aihiokhai Mark Ohioghie

    Economic Importance Of Fungi Fungi have both positive and negative roles in our daily life. So they are our friends as well as foes (enemy).

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  105. BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    Cognitive Psychology : This is the branch of psychology that is concerned with intelligent actions: thinking, perceiving, planning, imagining, creating, dreaming, speaking, listening, and problem solving.

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  106. BUS102 – Business Management – Lecture 1

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    MEANING AND CONCEPTS Management means different things to different people. It is a term used to describe the process whereby resources of all kinds are utilized for the purpose of achieving objectives in any social system. Management may also be used to refer to a body of people who have primary responsibility to ensure that the efforts of a group are harnessed and directed toward the achievement of predetermined objectives.

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  107. BUS102 – Business Management – Lecture 2

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT The combination of internal and external factors that influence a company's operating situation. The business environment can include factors such as: clients and suppliers; its competition and owners; improvements in technology; laws and government activities; and market, social and economic trends.

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  108. BUS102 – Business Management – Lecture 3

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF BUSINESS You know that business is an economic activity, which is carried out on a regular basis to earn profit. However, you must have seen businessmen spending money on different aspects, which is not going to give them any profit straightway. For example, you must have seen businessmen maintaining and developing gardens and parks on streets and squares in cities.

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  109. BUS102 – Business Management – Lecture 4

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    THE ROLES OF THE MANAGER The manager performs many roles in the process of carrying out his/her duties. These arise because of his position as a manager. Manager’s role is very crucial in an organization. The success of organization depends upon manager’s ability in utilizing the resources for achieving the pre determined goals.

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  110. BUS102 – Business Management – Lecture 5

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    COMMUNICATION IN MANAGEMENT Communication is neither transmission of message nor message itself. It is the mutual exchange of understanding, originating with the reciever. Communication needs to be effective in business. Communication is essence of management. The basic functions of management (Planning, Organizing, Staffing, Directing and Controlling) cannot be performed well without effective communication. Business communication involves constant flow of information. Feedback is integral part of business communication.

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  111. BUS102 – Business Management – Lecture 6

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    LEADERSHIP AND LEADERSHIP STYLES Leadership style is the manner and approach of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. Kurt Lewin (1939) led a group of researchers to identify different styles of leadership. This early study has been very influential and established three major leadership styles.

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  112. BUS111 – Introduction to Business – Lecture 1

    Dr. Chukwuka Ernest Jebolise

    WHAT IS BUSINESS? The word ‘Business’ as a matter of fact, means different thing to different persons. But for the purpose of this lecture, we adopt this holistic definition as an art of exchange of values for the mutual benefit of parties involved (Chukwuka 2016). For example, if you are selling phones: I need your phones, so I can maintain contacts with my loved once and business associates and you on the other hand, need my money so you can expand your phone business, Both of us are benefitting: you are benefitting materially, I am benefitting socially. We are both exchanging values. When values are created and exchanged, money comes as a reward for the created value.

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  113. BUS111 – Introduction to Business – Lecture 2

    Dr. Chukwuka Ernest Jebolise

    WHY DO WE STUDY BUSINESS? Business is a significant economic institution that affects the life of everyone. Therefore, business should be a part of everyone’s knowledge. We get associated with business from birth to death. Whether one plans to own a business or merely be a worker in an enterprise, one needs to have a knowledge of numerous things concerning the many complicated activities of a business such as insurance, advertising, store display, Shipping and transportation, employee relations and regulations, law and governmental regulations, and public relations.

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  114. BUS111 – Introduction to Business – Lecture 3

    Dr. Chukwuka Ernest Jebolise

    TYPES OF BUSINESS ORGANIZATION In summary, business is the sum total of organized efforts by which people engaged in commerce and industry provide the goods and services needed for the maintenance and improvement of the standard of living and quality of life of an individual/group. Thus business is organized solely at the individual’s initiative. The entrepreneur takes it upon himself to bear the risk of assembling resources for the purpose of engaging in the provision of goods and services, in the hope that these will meet the requirement of the people, and that the people will be prepared to make adequate payment for the goods or services thus produced or rendered.

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  115. BUS111 – Introduction to Business – Lecture 4

    Dr. Chukwuka Ernest Jebolise

    ENTREPRENEURSHIP Entrepreneurship has been defined as the willingness and ability of an individual to seek out investment opportunities, establish and run an enterprise successfully. The activities includes – identification of investment opportunities, decision making as to the opportunities to exploit, promotion and establishment of the business enterprise. Entrepreneurship is a vital factor in the process of economic development of any nation.

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  116. BUS111 – Introduction to Business – Lecture 5

    Dr. Chukwuka Ernest Jebolise

    DEFINITION, STRUCTURE, PLACE OF SMALL BUSINESS IN THE ECONOMY, PROBLEMS OF SMALL BUSINESS Small business is defined as those enterprises that have relatively little capital investment, that produce in small quantities and as a result control a a small share of the market.

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  117. BUS111 – Introduction to Business – Lecture 6

    Dr. Chukwuka Ernest Jebolise

    BUSINESS COMMUNICATION Communication is the exchange of information by message or otherwise. Business Communication can be described as the exchange by message or otherwise, of information that is capable of facilitating the firm’s activities and enabling it to achieve its objectives.

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  118. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 1

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    SOURCES OF NIGERIA LAW The received English law – consisting of common law, doctrine of equity and statutes of general application. Received English laws are these English law received into the Nigerian legal system and made past of our laws, firstly introduced into Nigeria in 1863 as soon as the British took over the administration of the colony of Lagos and later extended to the parts of Nigeria.

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  119. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 2

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    ARBITRATION Arbitration is a private dispute resolution procedure designed by the parties to serve their particular needs. Still arbitration typically contains the essential elements of court adjudication proofs, and arguments are submitted to a neutral third party who has the power to issue a binding decision. Arbitration differs from court adjudication, however in that unless the parties agree otherwise; there will be no pre-trial discovery. Additionally, the hearing is usually more informal than a court hearing and the rules of evidence are not strictly applied.

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  120. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 3

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    HIERARCHY OF NIGERIA COURT As a general rule under the doctrine of stare decises, or binding precedent, a court is bound to follow the decision of a higher court in the hierarchy. But a lower court is not bound to follow decision of a higher court in the court which has been overruled. Furthermore, a lower court is not bound by a decision of a higher court where that decision is in conflict with a decision of another court which is above such higher court in the hierarchy. Moreover, in principle a lower court is entitled to choose which of the two conflicting decision of a higher court or of higher courts of equal standing it would follow.

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  121. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 4

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    LAW OF CONTRACT An agreement which is enforceable or recognized as affecting the legal rights and duties of the parties can be considered a contract. Such agreement must give rise to legally enforceable obligations. A contract is also defined as an agreement which the law will enforce or deems binding on parties. Thus, not all agreements will be enforceable by law.

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  122. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 5

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    FORMATION OF A CONTRACT The elements of a contract have been listed as offer, acceptance and consideration, and intention to enter into legal relations; although, parties to contract do not consciously contemplate this last element when entering into a contract. An offer may be defined as a definite undertaking or promise made by one party with the intention that it shall become binding on the party making it as soon as it is accepted by the party to whom it is addressed.

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  123. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 6

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    INVITATION TO TREAT Invitation to treat is not an offer. It is merely a preliminary move in negotiation which may lead to a contract. It is an invitation to make an offer and engage in business. It is of no effect in law. For instance, the goods displayed by a shop owner in the shelves in his shop with marked price tags do not bind him to sell at that price. He merely makes an invitation to treat. It is the customer who makes an offer by asking to buy the goods and the shop owner/seller may accept the offer by receiving the purchase price.

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  124. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 7

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    TERMINATION OF AN OFFER Revocation: An offer may be revoked before acceptance. Revocation of an offer before acceptance involves no liability on the part of the offeror and this is so even if he promised to keep the offer open for a specific period or time and nevertheless revoked the offer before the expiration of that period of time.

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  125. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 8

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    CONSIDERATION Unless an agreement is under seal it cannot been enforced by a party that has not furnished some consideration in support of it. Consideration must move from the promise. There must be an exchange either of promise or a promise for an act. The basic feature of the doctrine is reciprocity; sum of the value in the eye of the law must be given for a promise in order to make it enforceable as a contract.

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  126. BUS315 – Business Law – Lecture 9

    Mr. Moni Matthew

    INTENTION TO CREATE LEGAL RELATION For a contract to be valid and enforceable, the parties to it, must intend that the agreement should be attended by legal consequences. In other words, they must intend to enter into legal relations, in entering into the contract. Where there is no such intention, the agreement cannot be enforced by the courts.

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  127. CHM101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 1

    Otache Monday Abel

    Basic Postulates of Quantum Theory: Atoms and molecules can exist only in certain energy states. In each energy state, the atom or molecule has a definite energy. When an atom or molecule changes its energy state, it must emit or absorb just enough energy to bring it to the new energy state (the quantum condition). Atoms or molecules emit or absorb radiation (light) as they change their energies. The frequency of the light emitted or absorbed is related to the energy change by a simple equation.

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  128. CHM101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 2

    Otache Monday Abel

    ATOMIC ORBITALS: Atomic orbitals are regions of space where the probability of finding an electron about an atom is highest. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE S-ORBITAL: s-orbitals are spherical in shape, There is one s orbital per n level, L = 0; 1 value of m = 0

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  129. CHM101 – GENERAL CHEMISTRY 1 – LECTURE 3

    Otache Monday Abel

    PERIODIC TABLE: Atomic radius and ionic radius are two ways to describe the size of an atom. Both concepts follow the same trends in the periodic table.

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  130. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 1

    Otache Monday Abel

    COLLISION FREQUENCY (Z): We treat the molecules as hard spheres (of diameter d) – like pool balls. For two molecules to collide, their centers must come within a distance d of each other.

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  131. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 2

    Otache Monday Abel

    Mean Free Path: Collision frequency allows for the determination of the mean free path. If a molecule is travelling with a relative speed c-and collides with a frequency z, the time it spends between each collision = 1/z. Therefore, the distance travelled between collision

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  132. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 3

    Otache Monday Abel

    BEHAVIOUR OF REAL GASES: We want to calculate how many molecules collide with the surface per unit time and per unit surface area.

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  133. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 4

    Otache Monday Abel

    ENTROPY AND FREE ENERGY: Spontaneous vs non-spontaneous, Thermodynamics vs kinetics, Entropy = randomness (So), Gibbs free energy (DGo), Thermodynamics of coupled reactions, DGrxn versus DGorxn, Predicting equilibrium constants from DGorxn, STANDARD ENTROPIES (SO): Every substance at a given temperature and in a specific phase has a well-defined Entropy.

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  134. CHM210 – PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY – LECTURE 5

    Otache Monday Abel

    PHASE EQUILIBRIUM: System: A body of engineering material under investigation. e.g. Ag – Cu system, NiO-MgO system (or even sugar-milk system). Component of a system: Pure metals and or compounds of which an alloy is composed, e.g. Cu and Ag or Fe and Fe3C. They are the solute(s) and solvent. Solubility Limit: The maximum concentration of solute atoms that may dissolve in the Solvent to form a “solid solution” at some temperature.

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  135. COMPUTER ARCHITECTURE AND ORGANISATION

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction Computer organization refers to the components from which computers are built. It is the operational units and other interconnections that brings about the architecture. In other words, they are the units that are transparent to the machine language programmer.

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  136. Computer Memory

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction Data are represented in the computer memory in bits. That is 0s and 1s. 8bits make up a byte. Data entered into the computer have to be converted into the machine readable form.

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  137. COMPUTER NETWORKS

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction Communication is the act of conveying a massage from a sender to a receiver through some form of medium. Communication is not complete if the receiver does not understands the massage.

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  138. Computer Storage

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction Computer Storage are Secondary Memory that are external memory of the computer. It is also known as Auxiliary memory and permanent memory. It is used to store the different programs and the information permanently. They are non volatile.

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  139. CONCEPT OF LABOUR ECONOMICS

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Labor economics is the branch of economics that studies the nature and determinants of employment and compensation. Particular emphasis is placed on the role played by social institutions and different types of market structures that jointly determine the pattern and mobility or speed of adjustment in the labor market where human labor inputs are bought and sold.

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  140. CONCEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    CONCEPT OF PSYCHOLOGY: What is Psychology? The term psychology comes from the Greek roots psyche meaning soul or mind and logos meaning word or study. Psychology is the science of human behavior and mental processes.

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  141. CSC102 – INTRODUCTION TO PROBLEM SOLVING

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    SOFTWARE Software are programs or collection of instructions that enable users to interact with the computer. They are the variable part of the computer (while the hardware of the computer are the invariable part of the computer).

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  142. CSC204 – COMPUTER HARDWARE – LECTURE 1

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction An integrated circuit (IC), sometimes called a chip or microchip, is a semiconductor wafer on which thousands or millions of tiny resistors, capacitors, and transistors are fabricated. Integrated circuits are the building blocks of most electronic devices and equipment.

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  143. CSC204 – COMPUTER HARDWARE – LECTURE 2

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction The Secondary memory is also known as Auxiliary Memory, Permanent Memory or external memory. It is non-volatile memory because it retains stored programs and information permanently even when power is switched off. Programs and information can also be deleted at any time. It is called auxiliary memory because it serves as a backup memory to the primary memory. They are also used for off-line storage and achieving.

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  144. CSC204 – COMPUTER HARDWARE – LECTURE 3

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction The primary memory also called main memory or temporary memory is the internal memory of the computer. It is called the primary memory because it is the memory that the processor accesses first. It holds the data and instructions on which the processor is currently working on.

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  145. CSC204 – COMPUTER HARDWARE – LECTURE 4

    Ogeh, clement O.

    Diode A diode is an electronic component that conducts current in one direction and blocks current from flowing in the other direction.

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  146. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lesson objectives:

    By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: describe discrete structure; define set; identify set notations; describe set theory; describe set operations.

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  147. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 10

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Basic Graph Theorems In this topic we review certain basic concepts of linear algebra in graph theory. We consider matrices. You are assumed to be familiar with the basic operations on matrices.

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  148. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lesson objectives:By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: Define and describe relations; Identify and describe the different kinds of relations.

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  149. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lesson objectives:By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: Define functions; Identify and describe the different types of functions.

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  150. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 4

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lesson Objectives:By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: describe and identify antisymmetric relations; describe and identify partial order sets(POSETs); describe Lattices; identify different types of Lattices; describe Boolean algebra; identify different types of Boolean algebra.

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  151. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 5

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Partially and totally ordered setsA partially ordered set or poset P is a pair (X,P) where P is an reflexive, anti symmetric and transitive binary relation on X. The set X is called the groundset and members of X are called elements or points. The binary relation P is called a partial order on X.

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  152. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 6

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lattices Partial order and lattice theory play an important role in many disciplines of computer science and engineering. For example, they have applications in distributed computing (vectorclocks, global predicate detection), concurrency theory(pomsets, occurrence nets),programming language semantics(fixed-point semantics), and data mining(concept analysis). They are also useful in other disciplines of mathematics such as combinatorics, number theory and group theory.

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  153. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 8

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Boolean Algebra & Calculus, Basic GatesA Boolean algebra is a system consisting of a set of elements, B, two binary operators (+ and .), parentheses to indicate the nested order of evaluation and an = operator to perform assignment of an expression. The algebra must further obey sixfundamental postulates, or axioms:

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  154. CSC205 – Discrete Structure – Lecture 9

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Graph Theory: Graph theory is a branch of discrete mathematics.In mathematics and computer science, graph theory is the study of graphs which are mathematical structures used to model pairwise relations between objects.

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  155. CSC206 – Foundations of Sequential Program – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Memory Memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage". Computer memory operates at a high speed, for example random-access memory (RAM), as a distinction from storage that provides slow-to-access information but offers higher capacities. If needed, contents of the computer memory can be transferred to secondary storage, through a memory management technique called "virtual memory".

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  156. CSC206 – Foundations of Sequential Program – Lecture 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    COMPUTER / PROGRAMMING LANGUAGES Computer or Programming Languages are sets of words, symbols and codes used to write programs. Different programming languages are available for writing different types of programs. Some languages are specially used for writing business programming, others are used for writing scientific program etc.

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  157. CSC206 – Foundations of Sequential Program – Lecture 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Memory Your programs /software has two main kinds of memory to work with, which are: Stack memory, Heap memory

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  158. CSC206 – Foundations of Sequential Program – Lecture 4

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    What is memory management? Memory management is the process of controlling and coordinating computer memory, assigning portions called blocks to various running programs to optimize overall system performance.

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  159. CSC206 – Foundations of Sequential Program – Lecture 5

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Control Structure Control Structures.In a program,a control structure determines the order in which statements are executed. It can also be defined as any mechanism that departs from the default of straight-line execution.

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  160. CSC206 – Foundations of Sequential Program – Lecture 6

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Describing Procedures In computer programming, a procedure is a set of coded instructions that tell a computer how to run a program or calculation. Many different types of programming languages can be used to build a procedure. Depending on the programming language, a procedure may also be called a subroutine, sub program or function.

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  161. CSC209 – Applications of Computer to Science – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    History of Computers: Before the 1500s, in Europe, calculations were made with an abacus Invented around 500BC, available in many cultures (China, Mesopotamia, Japan, Greece, Rome, etc.)

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  162. CSC209 – Applications of Computer to Science – Lecture 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    IMPORTANCE OF COMPUTERS: A computer is an electronic device that executes certain actions through user-based commands. It is made up of two parts- hardware and software. The computer processes input through input devices like the mouse and keyboard. It displays output through output devices like a monitor and printer.

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  163. CSC209 – Applications of Computer to Science – Lecture 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Components of Computer: Computer system consists of: System Unit-The system unit is the main container for system devices. It protects the delicate electronic and mechanical devices from damage; Storage devices; primary storage; secondary storage; input devices; output devices; Communications devices; Buses-a path through which data can be sent to the different parts of the computer system; Ports.

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  164. CSC209 – Applications of Computer to Science – Lecture 4

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Computer Software: Computer Instructions or data, anything that can be stored electronically is Software. Software consists of programs and enables a computer to perform specific tasks, as opposed to its physical components(hardware) which can only do the tasks they are mechanically designed for.

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  165. CSC209 – Applications of Computer to Science – Lecture 6

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    System Software: System software is the software that controls everything that happens in a computer. System Software includes the Operating System and all the utilities that enable the computer to function. System software is a term referring to any computer software which manages and controls the hardware so that application software can perform a task.

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  166. CSC209 – Applications of Computer to Science – Lecture 7

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Software Programming and Development: Program is a set of instructions, written with computer programming languages by programmers, to solve a particular task or problem. Therefore, programming is the act of writing computer programs. Programming Languages are the languages used in developing computer programs.

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  167. CSC302 – COMPILER CONSTRUCTION 1 – LECTURE 1 Details
  168. CSC302 – COMPILER CONSTRUCTION 1 – LECTURE 2 Details
  169. CSC302 – COMPILER CONSTRUCTION 1 – LECTURE 3 Details
  170. CSC302 – COMPILER CONSTRUCTION 1 – LECTURE 4 Details
  171. CSC302 – COMPILER CONSTRUCTION 1 – LECTURE 5 Details
  172. CSC302 – COMPILER CONSTRUCTION 1 – LECTURE 6 Details
  173. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    What is Object Oriented Programming? OOP, is a programming paradigm using “objects”, which are data structures consisting of data fields and methods together with their interactions, to design applications and computer programs. It is an approach that provides a way of modularizing programs by creating partitioned memory area for both data and functions that can be used as templates for creating copies of such modules on demand.”

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  174. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 10

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Methods The concept of modularity in Java, i.e, how java handles subprograms or program modules, is usually achieved by the use of methods; which is also referred to as functions and procedures in some other languages.

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  175. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 11

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Principles of OOP in Java An object oriented program will usually contain different types of objects, each type corresponding to a particular kind of complex data to be managed or perhaps to a real life object or concept such as a bank account, a hockey player, or a bull dozer. An OOP may thus be viewed as a collection of interacting objects, as opposed to the conventional model in which a program is seen as a list of tasks or subroutines to perform.

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  176. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 12

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Applications of Object Oriented Programming Concepts in Java Inheritance can be defined as the process where one object acquires the properties of another. With the use of inheritance the information is made manageable in a hierarchical order. When we talk about inheritance, the most commonly used keyword would be extends and implements.These words would determine whether one object is a type of another.

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  177. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 13

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Java Applets Built using one of general definitions of applets; Appletclass, JAappletclass. Java applets are usually graphical; Draw graphics in a defined screen area; Enable user interaction with GUI elements

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  178. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 14

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    File Handling with Java All along,we have been using keyboard and monitor to input our programs and output the results of computations respectively from our programs, we now turn our attention to the use of files. A file stores data permanently unlike variables and arrays, which loose data as soon as the programs that use them terminates.

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  179. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 15

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Database Handling with Java JDBC stands for Java Database Connectivity. JDBC API is a collection of classes and interfaces, which help a Java application to connect to SQL based relational databases by abstracting vendor specific details of the database. JDBC enables Java developers to connect to any SQL compliant database, send SQL statements, and process return messages and data.

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  180. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 16

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    OLE Microsoft’s Technology for components; The full meaning is “Object Linking and embedding”; Based on “COM” = “Component Object Model”

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  181. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 17

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Java Persistence Mapping Java objects to database tables and vice versa is called Object-relational mapping (ORM). The Java Persistence API (JPA) is one possible approach to ORM. Via JPA the developer can map, store, update and retrieve data from relational databases to Java objects and vice versa. JPA can be used in Java-EE and Java-SE applications.

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  182. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Introduction: Java is an OOP language with a relatively simple grammar. Java omits the poorly understood, confusing features of C++ such as header files, pointer arithmetic, structures, unions, operator overloading and templates. Java added new features like automatic garbage collection. All methods, fields and constructors are local to classes, that is, there is no global data. Java supports static methods and fields, exception handling, inheritance, and control structures such as while loops, for loops, and if/else statements.

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  183. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    TOOLS FOR DEVELOPING, COMPILING, INTERPRETING AND DEBUGGING JAVA PROGRAMS Comments are very good in programs. They make the codes to be more readable and understandable. Note that adding comments to your code is called documenting your code and comments are normally ignored during program compilation. Therefore, comments promote readability, understandability and maintainability of programs. Java embraces both c and C++ styles of comments. The C comment style is a multi line style. It is used when we have several lines of comments to be inserted into our program.

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  184. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 4

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Java programs1. the scanner has to be imported into your program, similar to #include in C or C++ language. This is done in line 2. 2. In line 5, an object of the Scanner class(input) is created. The variable/object input is user-defined. You can give any other meaningful identifier name for this object. This will serve as the anchor for receiving data from the keyboard buffer as you are entering data via the keyboard.

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  185. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 5

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Java variables and objects: A variable has a type and hold a single value. It hold data in Java just as any other programming languages. While an object is an instance of a class and may contain many variables. An object is created by using the “new”  operator to invoke a “constructor” and it dies when it has when it has no references.

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  186. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 6

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lesson Objectives: By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: describe the structure of a Java program; describe java access specifiers and modifiers.

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  187. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 7

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Operator definition: An operator is a character that represents an action, for example + is an arithmetic operator that represents addition.

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  188. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 8

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: distinguish between instance and local variables;describe how to initialize instance variables; identify and correct a Possible reference before assignment compiler error; recognize, describe, and use Java software operators; distinguish between legal and illegal assignments of primitive types

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  189. CSC303 – Object Oriented Programming – Lecture 9

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    What is an Array? With the basic built-in Java data types that you’ve seen in the previous chapters, each identifier corresponds to a single variable. But when you want to handle sets of values of the same type— the first 1,000 primes, for example—you really don’t want to have to name them individually. What you need is an array.

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  190. CSC308 – ALGORITHMS AND COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS – LECTURE 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Overview: This course applies design and analysis techniques to numeric and non numeric algorithms which act on data structures. Design is emphasized so that the student will be able to develop new algorithms. Analysis of algorithms is concerned with the resources an algorithm must use to reach a solution. Only theoretical techniques of analysis are covered. Topics include introduction to algorithm, Basic algorithmic analysis: Asymptotic analysis of Upper and average complexity bounds(Asymptotic complexity, sorting and searching); standard Complexity Classes Time and space trade offs in algorithms analysis recursive algorithms. Algorithmic Strategies: Fundamental computing algorithms:

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  191. CSC308 – Algorithms and Complexity Analysis – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Introduction This course applies design and analysis techniques to numeric and non numeric algorithms which act on data structures. Design is emphasized so that the student will be able to develop new algorithms. Analysis of algorithms is concerned with the resources an algorithm must use to reach a solution. Only theoretical techniques of analysis are covered.

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  192. CSC308 – ALGORITHMS AND COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS – LECTURE 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Algorithm classification: Algorithms that use a similar problem-solving approach can be grouped together; We’ll talk about a classification scheme for algorithms; This classification scheme is neither exhaustive nor disjoint; The purpose is not to be able to classify an algorithm as one type or another, but to highlight the various ways in which a problem can be attacked

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  193. CSC308 – ALGORITHMS AND COMPLEXITY ANALYSIS – LECTURE 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Analysis of Algorithms: What is the goal? Analyze time requirements -predict how running time increases as the size of the problem increases: Why is it useful? To compare different algorithms.

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  194. CSC310 – SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN – LECTURE 1

    Ejodamen Pius Uagbae

    INTRODUCTION Systems analysis and design refers to the process of examining a business situation with the intent of improving it through better procedures and methods. Systems development can generally be thought of as having two major components: Systems Analysts and Systems Design. Systems design is the process of planning a new system or replace or complement an existing system. But before this planning can be done, we must thoroughly understand the existing system and determine how computers can best be used to make its operation more effective.

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  195. CSC310 – SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN – LECTURE 2

    Ejodamen Pius Uagbae

    SYSTEM DEVELOPMENT LIFE CYCLE (SDLC) System development, a process consisting of the two major steps of systems analysis and design, starts when management or sometimes system development personnel feel that a new system or an improvement in the existing system is required. The systems development life cycle is classically thought of as the set of activities that analysts, designers and users carry out to develop and implement an information system.

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  196. CSC310 – SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN – LECTURE 3

    Ejodamen Pius Uagbae

    FEASIBILITY STUDY Once a preliminary area of application has been identified, it may then be subjected to a more rigorous examination in a feasibility study. We previously discussed the steps that make up the initial investigation. By the initial investigation, a user has recognized the need, user requirements are determined and the problem has been defined. Apart from this, an initial investigation is launched to study the present system and verify the problem in a systematic way. The next step is to determine exactly what the proposed system is to do by defining its expected performance. This kind of work will be carried out in the feasibility study.

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  197. CSC310 – SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN – LECTURE 4

    Ejodamen Pius Uagbae

    Data Flow Diagrams (DFD) Graphical description of a system’s data and how the processes transform the data is known as Data flow Diagram (or DFD). Unlike detail flowcharts, DFDs do not supply detailed descriptions of modules but graphically describe a system’s data and how the data interact with the system.

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  198. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    What is Programming? A program is a set of instructions use in performing specific task. Therefore, Programming is an act of writing programs.

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  199. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 10

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Abstraction Principle In software engineering and programming language theory, the abstraction principle (or the principle of abstraction) is a basic dictum that aims to reduce duplication of information in a program (usually with emphasis on code duplication) whenever practical by making use of abstractions provided by the programming language or software libraries.

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  200. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 11

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Activation records and storage management It is useful to understand how storage is managed in different programming languages and for different kinds of data. Three important cases are: static storage allocation, stack-based storage allocation, heap-based storage allocation

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  201. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 12

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Modular programming Modular programming is a software design technique that emphasizes separating the functionality of a program into independent, interchangeable modules, such that each contains everything necessary to execute only one aspect of the desired functionality.

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  202. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 13

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Type Parameter A parameter represents a value that the procedure expects you to pass when you call it. The procedure's declaration defines its parameters. When you define a Function or Sub procedure, you specify a parameter list in parentheses immediately following the procedure name. For each parameter, you specify a name, a data type, and a passing mechanism (ByVal or ByRef).

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  203. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 14

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Overview of the main programming paradigms A programming paradigm is a style, or “way,” of programming. Some Common Paradigms are: Imperative - Programming with an explicit sequence of commands that update state; Declarative - Programming by specifying the result you want, not how to get it; Structured - Programming with clean, goto-free, nested control structures; Procedural - Imperative programming with procedure calls; Functional (Applicative) - Programming with function calls that avoid any global state; Function-Level (Combinator): Programming with no variables at all.

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  204. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Introduction Early (~1950-1957) computers were set-up/programmed using binary assembly codes for that exact computer. Multiplication, or even adding numbers that took more than one word, was done in several steps. Registers had different abilities (r1 can have r2-4 added to it, r3-6 can do bit-shifting, ... ) which you needed to know. It was obvious that the set-up for one computer wouldn't work for another.

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  205. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    PARADIGM? We use the word Paradigm to mean “any example or model”. This usage of the word was popularized by the science historian Thomas Kuhn. He used the term to describe a set of theories, standards and methods that together represent a way of organizing knowledge- a way of viewing the world.

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  206. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 4

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Syntax Tree It is a Syntax tree because we are representing the Syntax of a language. The syntax of something is the structure of its statements. To have valid syntax means that you have written something that makes sense based on the rules of grammar.

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  207. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 5

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Lesson objectives: By the end of this lesson, students should be able to: Describe Grammar; Describe Ambiguous Grammar; Parse an expression on syntax tree; Transverse preorder, inorder and postorder.

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  208. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 6

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Introduction
    • Semantics: the meaning of the expressions, statements, and program units, that is, the study of meaning of languages.

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  209. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 7

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Students should be able to: Identify and describe Axiomatic semantics; Identify and describe Operational semantics; Identify and describe Denotation semantics.

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  210. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 8

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Declaration vs.definition A basic dichotomy is whether a declaration contains a definition or not: for example, whether a declaration of a constant or variable specifies the value of the constant(respectively,initial value of a variable), or only its type; and similarly whether a declaration of a function specifies the body(implementation) of the function, or only its type.

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  211. CSC311 – Survey of Programming Languages – Lecture 9

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    GARBAGE COLLECTION When you are programming, no matter the task on hand, you are manipulating some data.These are stored in basic types and objects and they live inside computer memory. Eventually,the memory fills up and you need to make more room for new data and discard the old one.

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  212. CSC312 – Formal Methods and Software Development – Lecture 1

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Introduction Our society is still increasingly dependent on computer systems. As a result, mistakes in these computer systems can have serious consequences: large monetary damage can occur, or human lives can be endangered. In these cases, the traditional error prevention methods are often insufficient. However, employing formal methods can help to achieve the desired safety level.

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  213. CSC312 – Formal Methods and Software Development – Lecture 2

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Formal methods mathematical tools and models Every software development methodology is based on a recommended development process proceeding through several phases: Requirements identification, Specification, Design, Coding, Unit Testing, Integration and System Testing, Maintenance, Formal methods can; Be a foundation for designing safety critical systems, Be a foundation for describing complex systems, Provide support for program development

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  214. CSC312 – Formal Methods and Software Development – Lecture 3

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    Formal Specification The approach is especially important in high-integrity systems, for example where safety or security is important, to help ensure that errors are not introduced into the development process.

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  215. CSC312 – Formal Methods and Software Development – Lecture 4

    Anoemuah Rosemary

    What is Imperative Programming? Imperative Programming(IP) is one of the popular Programming Paradigms which executes a sequence of steps/instructions/statements in some order.

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  216. DATA MANAGEMENT 1

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction Data management refers to all areas of planning, handling, analysis, documentation and storages. It includes the following activities of a study. The main elements of data management are database files. Database files contain text, numerical, images and other data in machine readable form. The files are viewed as part of a database management system which has a large range of functions that includes data entry, checking updating, documentation and analysis.

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  217. Database management systems

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction Data are raw, unorganized facts that need to be processed. Data can be something simple and seemingly random and useless until it is organized. For example, student's test score is one piece of data.

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  218. ECN328 – Public Sector Economics

    Dr. Dania Evelyn

    Introduction: Economics has been defined simply as a field connected with management and sharing of limited social resources amongst unlimited social needs. With this economists have devised a method of ensuring the efficient, effective and equitable distribution of social resources in order to achieve optimum satisfaction. This led to the market mechanism which was believed would help to end the achievement of this objective without government interference.

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  219. ECN328 – Public Sector Economics – Lecture 2

    Dr. Dania Evelyn

    The Cost Benefit Analysis, (CBA): we shall explore the economics of public expenditures decision making process and discuss the role of economic analysis in making this process more rational one. We are going to use the basic principles in the analysis of public spending programme. The method employed in the analysis is called Cost Benefit Analysis, (CBA).

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  220. EXTERNALITIES

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Externalities are costs (negative externalities) or benefits (positive externalities), which are not reflected in free market prices. Externalities are sometimes referred to as 'by-products', 'spillover effects', 'neighborhood effects' 'third-party effects' or 'side-effects', as the generator of the externality, either producers or consumers, or both, impose costs or benefits on others who are not responsible for initiating the effect. The key feature of an externality is that it is initiated and experienced, not through the operation of the price system, but outside the market.

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  221. FACTORS INFLUENCING INTELLIGENCE

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    The Child’s Influence : Boys and girls tend to be equivalent in most aspect of intelligence, The average IQ scores of boys and girls is virtually identical The extremes (both low and high ends) are over-represented by boys. Girls as a group tend to be stronger in verbal fluency, writing, in perceptual speed (starting as early as the toddler years). Boys as a group tend to be stronger in visual-spatial processing, in science, and in mathematical problem solving (starting as early as age 3).

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  222. FISCAL POLICY

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Fiscal policy involves the government changing the levels of taxation and government spending in order to influence Aggregate Demand (AD) and the level of economic activity. AD is the total level of planned expenditure in an economy (AD = C+ I + G + X – M)

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  223. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 1

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    Nature and Purpose of Audit: The auditor may be engaged to perform statutory and non-statutory roles of auditing. Under this circumstance, the professional body to which an accountant belongs sets out the fundamental principles expected to guide his conduct in rendering services to his varied clients.

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  224. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 10

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    AUDIT REPORT: The audit report is the end product of every audit assignment. The auditor has a statutory duty under S.359 (1) of 1990 statute to issue a report to the members of the client’s company expressing an independent opinion on the truth and fairness view of the client financial statement. Where the client company is a public limited company (PLC), the auditor has additional duty under S 359 (3) of the 1990 statute to issue a report to the member of the audit committee which must statutorily set up by such a company.

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  225. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 2

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    AUDIT EVIDENCE: “Audit evidence” means the information obtained by the auditor in arriving at the conclusions on which the audit opinion is based. Audit evidence encompasses the quantity and quality (or reliability) of evidence to be obtained by auditors. It is important for auditors to obtain sufficient, appropriate and reliable audit evidence to enable them draw reasonable conclusions on which to base their audit opinion.

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  226. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 3

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    Audit Documentation: It is the duty of the auditor to document matters which are important in providing evidence to support the audit opinion and evidence that the audit was carried out in accordance with auditing standards, accounting standards and relevant regulations.

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  227. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 4

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    INDEPENDENCE, OBJECTIVITY, INTEGRITY, CONFIDENTIALITY, SKILLS, CARE AND COMPETENCE: IFAC Code of Ethics for Professional Accountants states that “it is in the public interest and, therefore, required by this Code of Ethics, that members of assurance teams, firms and, when applicable, network firms be independent of assurance clients”.

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  228. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 5

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    Materiality and Judgement: The APB Statement of Auditing Standard 220 covers ‘Materiality and the audit’. The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board of IFAC issued International Statement on Auditing 320 on ‘Audit Materiality’.

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  229. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 6

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    Statutory Audit: These are audits carried out because the law requires them. Statutes which require audits to be done in Nigeria include the Companies and Allied Matters Act, 1990. Essentially, all Public Limited Liability (PLC) companies are required by law to engage an external auditor to audit their financial statement every year.

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  230. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 7

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    LEGAL FRAMEWORK: In practice, the auditor should be thoroughly familiar with statutes and other pronouncement relevant to the client’s operations so as to be able to form an independent opinion on the truth and fairness view of the client’s financial statement.

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  231. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 8

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    AUDITING STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES: In practice, Auditing standard prescribe the basic principle expected to be addressed by an auditor in the course of an audit. On the other hand, auditing guideline gives some guidelines on the procedures by which Auditing standard may be applied. In addition, these guidelines discuss the current technique in auditing and specific audit problem in a particular industry.

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  232. Fundamentals and Principles Of Auditing – Lecture 9

    Adelegan Oluyomi Michael

    AUDIT MANAGEMENT Audit management is the process of coordinating the auditor resources to ensure the delivery of qualitative audit services to audit client. In addition, it means that auditor should take appropriate steps to ensure that he avoid exposure to professional negligence which can be instituted by the client or a 3rd party that can claim reliance on the audited financial statement. To ensure that audited is effectively discharged on schedule, the auditor should institute an effective audit strategy by planning the audit and instituting effective audit strategy.

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  233. General Practical Biology 1 & 2

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Investigative Biology: Biology, the study of life is in complete without investigation and as a branch of science, Biologists employs scientific method to inquire so as to ascertain facts. The scientific method is a process of acquiring and verifying information through experimentation; simply put it is a process in which knowledge is achieved.

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  234. General Practical Biology 1 & 2

    Oghenekome Ewomazino Odibo

    Biology Orientation: Biology is the study of life, it is therefore the Biologist business to understand how living things stay alive until they have reproduced themselves. The purpose of teaching biology is not merely to accustom the learner with biological terms, facts, concepts and principles but also to prepare the learner to understand these concepts by doing calisthenics relating to them.

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  235. GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction The First Generation (1946 - 1958); Main component - vacuum tube, Generated a lot of heat, which was often the cause of malfunctions. Relied on machine language to perform operations.

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  236. Goals of Psychology

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    Goals of Psychology: Scientific psychology has four basic goals: Describe – the information gathered through scientific research helps us to describe psychological phenomena more accurately. Predict – detect and describe patterns in nature. Example – Differential effects of stress on performance

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  237. GST111 – Use of English

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Introduction The use of language in human communication is inevitable as long as one is a social being. The term communication is believed to have been derived from the Latin word ‘communicare’ which means to ‘participate, share, and impart’. Writing is a communicative tool which involves the putting down of our thoughts and ideas which we wish to share with people on paper through the use of alphabetical symbols.

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  238. GST122 – Use of English 2

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Lesson 1: Logical Presentation Of Papers The art of acknowledging our source(s) of information is called documentation. Every book you consult should be properly documented. Failure to acknowledge your source of information is termed PLAGIARISM

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  239. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 1

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    LOGICAL PRESENTATION OF PAPERS Research writing is an academic exercise that involves the review of literature. It is a daunting task and care should be taken during the course of writing the paper. It involves the consultation of online and printed book forms. These reviewed literature are products of someone else’s thinking and; therefore, important that they are referenced. During the course of this lecture, the methods of citation and the intricacies of research documentation will be treated.

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  240. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 10

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    THE CLAUSE A clause is a group of words which contain a finite verb. Basically, there are two types of English clauses; the main clause and the subordinate clause.

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  241. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 11

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    THE ART OF PUBLIC SPEAKING AND ORAL COMMUNICATION Oral communication involves an interpersonal mode of communication which uses speech as its primary medium. Public speaking is an example of oral communication. Public speaking is a form of oral communication in which a speaker talks to a group of people who may not be familiar with him. Most often than not, nervousness creeps in when most persons are presenting a speech. This is normal and constant practice can effectively deal with this fright. Most persons believe that public speaking is a gift and that some persons are born with it. In fact, these myths are erroneous as it can be learnt.

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  242. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 12

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    REPORT WRITING A report is an account given of a particular matter especially in the form of an official document. Reports are gotten after an investigation by an appointed person. There are different types of report. They include periodic report which are written either weekly, monthly, quarterly, yearly about the state of an organization, progress report which are written at regular intervals on the progress of a particular project.

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  243. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 13

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    SUMMARY WRITING Summary is a reconstruction of a piece of writing in as few words as possible which would carry the main points of the passage. It is a short account of what someone has said without repeating the entire phrase (verbatim) but a paraphrasing of an earlier speech/sentence.

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  244. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 2

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Mechanical Rules in Research Writing Mechanical rules of research writing refers to the techniques a researcher must observe so as to produce a sound research work. They are minor issues but when handled lackadaisically results to producing a work full of errors which is likely to be rejected by the project supervisor.

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  245. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 3

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    PHONETICS Phonetics as a branch of linguistics centers on speech production and its characteristics. It also tries to describe, and classify these speech sounds into their respective groups. Basically, the study of phonetics is from three angles: articulatory phonetics, acoustic phonetics and auditory phonetics. Articulatory phonetics is the domain of speech production (what happens during the production of speech?), acoustic phonetics centers on speech transmission (how is speech transmitted?) while auditory phonetics is on speech perception (what does the hearer perceive when a sound is uttered?).

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  246. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 4

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    The Sounds of English The English language has forty-four sounds and they are divided into twenty vowels and twenty-four consonants. Vowels are sounds which are produced with the vibration of the vocal cords. It is divided into two- pure vowels (monopthongs) and impure vowels (diphthongs).

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  247. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 5

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    The English Syllable A syllable is a unit of sound. Osisanwo describes the syllable as “… a segment of speech that consists of a vowel with or without one or more accompanying sounds which precedes or follows it” (2009:72). Basically syllables are divided into two- the stressed and unstressed. The stressed syllable usually carries the force when it is being articulated unlike the unstressed whose force is not as prominent as the latter.

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  248. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 6

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Stress and Intonation Stress is described as the breath force with which a syllable is pronounced. A word in which the breath force is heaped on the first syllable has the primary stress placed on it while the syllable that has lower degree of stress is the unstressed syllable.

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  249. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 7

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH LEXIS AND STRUCTURE In this study, we will be looking at the spoken and written word forms and their distinctions; lexemes and their word forms and finally a distinction between the lexical and grammatical words will be studied.

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  250. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 8

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    Word Formation The English language is a dynamic language which allows for the constant creation of new words. The creation of new words in a language is a morphological process. There are several processes of creating new words in English. They include: affixation, blending, conversion, reduplication, acronym, clipping, etc. However, our focus in this course is affixation.

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  251. GST122 – Use of English 2 – Lecture 9

    CYNTHIA NKECHINYERE ODOGWU

    FIGURES OF SPEECH Figures of speech are figurative language used in writing or in speech to paint a colourful picture of a situation. They often evoke a mental picture in the mind of the reader/listener as the case maybe.

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  252. HISTORY OF COMPUTERS

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction The architecture of the first man made computers Earliest Computer; Originally calculations were computed by humans, whose job title was computers. These human computers were typically engaged in the calculation of a mathematical expression. The calculations of this period were specialized and expensive, requiring years of training in mathematics.

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  253. History of Psychology

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    History of Psychology: Psychology was not considered an area of study until the 1870’s when the ideas of the industrial revolution were applied to the fields of philosophy and physiology. The German scientist Wilhelm Wundt opened the first laboratory and faculty of Psychology in the University of Leipzig in 1879 and established the first Psychological Journal in 1881.

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  254. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND TRAITS

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES AND TRAITS: Individual differences refer to variations among individuals. It is true that human beings have a lot of similarities like the possession of two hands, two legs, eyes; ears etc but a lot of differences abound among individuals. There are remarkable differences in both physical structures, emotional reactions and psychological attributes, etc of individuals.

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  255. Instruments of Monetary Policy

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction The instruments of monetary policy are of two types: first, quantitative, general or indirect; and second, qualitative, selective or direct. They affect the level of aggregate demand through the supply of money, cost of money and availability of credit. Of the two types of instruments, the first category includes bank rate variations, open market operations and changing reserve requirements. They are meant to regulate the overall level of credit in the economy through commercial banks.

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  256. Internet and the world wide web (www)

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction The first prototype of the Internet came in the late 1960s with the creation of ARPANET, or the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network. Originally funded by the U.S. Department of Defense, the 1970s after scientists Robert Kahn and Vinton Cerf developed Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol, or TCP/IP, a communications model that set standards for how data could be transmitted between multiple networks.

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  257. LABOR FORCE

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction The total number of people in an economy, society, or country willing and able to exert mental and/or physical efforts in productive activities. The labor force is a more technical term for the labor resource or labor supply. It includes both employed workers and unemployed workers. An official variation of this term is civilian labor force. While labor force may or may not include military personnel, the civilian labor force explicitly excludes the military. Labor and labor resources are the theoretical terms that economists like to banter about.

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  258. MAJOR AREAS OF SPECIALIZATION IN ECONOMICS

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    LABOUR ECONOMICS Labour economics looks at the suppliers of labour services (workers), the demands of labour services (employers), and attempts to understand the resulting pattern of wages, employment, and income. In economics, labour is a measure of the work done by human beings. Labour economics field tries to understand and explain dynamics and functioning of labour market, both at theoretical and empirical levels. The field has a significant policy orientation, with a strong theoretical background.

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  259. MCB201 – General Microbiology

    Philip Ifesinachi Anochie

    Introduction Safety in the Laboratory is aimed at protecting the experimenter and also protecting the sample from contamination that may give false results or infections in the laboratory and its environment.

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  260. MONETARY INSTITUTIONS

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction: A financial institution is an establishment that conducts financial transactions such as investments, loans and deposits. Almost everyone deals with financial institutions on a regular basis. Everything from depositing money to taking out loans and exchanging currencies must be done through financial institutions.

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  261. MONETARY POLICIES

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Monetary policy is how central banks manage liquidity to create economic growth. Liquidity is how much there is in the money supply. That includes credit, cash, checks, and money market mutual funds. The most important of these is credit. That includes loans, bonds, and mortgages. Also, monetary policy consists of the actions of a central bank, currency board or other regulatory committee that determine the size and rate of growth of the money supply, which in turn affects interest rates.

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  262. MTH101 – Elementary Mathematics – Lecture 1

    Dr. Mrs. C. E. Oladayo

    THE REAL NUMBERS SYSTEM Integers are whole numbers both positive and negative. They are whole numbers and opposite of whole numbers. Rational numbers are number that can be written as function (or ratio) of two integers. Irrational numbers are number that cannot be written as a function of two integers and are on the number line. The numbers defined above are different in their definitions but are similar in the sense that they are all components in the real number system.

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  263. MTH101 – Elementary Mathematics – Lecture 2

    Dr. Mrs. C. E. Oladayo

    MATHEMATICAL INDUCTION A sequence of numbers can be defined as a set of numbers which are arranged in a set of order with constant different ratio and common difference. Each sequence of a term is separated from a term by commas. Sequence can be divided into 2, namely: Arithmetic Progression and Geometric Progression.

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  264. MTH101 – Elementary Mathematics – Lecture 3

    Dr. Mrs. C. E. Oladayo

    AP- PRACTICE AND GEOMETRIC PREGRESSION In an A.P, the difference between the 8th and 4th term is 20 and the 8th term is one and half of the 4th term. What is: (a.) The common difference. (b.) The first term of the sequence?

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  265. NATURE AND LAWS OF DEMAND

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction In economics, demand is the quantity of goods or services that consumers are able and willing to buy at a given price at a particular time. The law of demand provides that, if all other market factors remain constant, the demand for goods and services increases as their price decreases.

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  266. Objectives of Monetary Policy

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction The monetary policy in developed economies has to serve the function of stabilization and maintaining proper equilibrium in the economic system. But in case of underdeveloped countries, the monetary policy has to be more dynamic so as to meet the requirements of an expanding economy by creating suitable conditions for economic progress. It is now widely recognized that monetary policy can be a powerful tool of economic transformation.

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  267. Overcoming Juvenile Delinquency

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    Overcoming Juvenile Delinquency: Preventive is doing an activity systematically, full of planning and having good direction in order to make the juvenile delinquency does not come up.

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  268. PERSONALITY TRAITS

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    PERSONALITY TRAITS: Personality is what we respond to in our daily contacts and interaction with others. Trait is a characteristic or quality distinguishing a person or a thing. Especially a more or less consistent pattern of behaviour that a person possessing the characteristics would be likely too display in relevant circumstances.

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  269. Personnel Management – Lecture 1

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    INTRODUCTION Personnel management is one of the most critical functions performed by managers in business organizations. This is because all the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up the institution. Plants, offices, computers, automated equipment and all else that a modern firm uses are unproductive except for human effort, and direction. Of all the tasks of management, managing the human component is the central and most important part because all else depends upon how well it is done.

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  270. Personnel Management – Lecture 2

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    Staffing (Employment) This is the crucial aspect of the manager’s job which relates to the recruitment, training, and development of the employees of an organization. It is a very important managerial function because the success or failure of any organization depends on the quality of its employees.

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  271. Personnel Management – Lecture 3

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    Manpower Planning Manpower Planning is the estimation of the quantity and quality of employees an organization or a Nation requires at a particular time in the future. In essence, it is concerned with the demand and supply of labour and problems arising from the process of reconciling these factors. Walker (1980) defined manpower planning, as a process of analyzing an organization’s human resources needs under changing conditions and developing the activities necessary to satisfy these needs.

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  272. Personnel Management – Lecture 4

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    Wages and Salary Administration An important function of the personnel manager and the personnel department is the administration of wages and salaries. Although conventional usage reserves the term ‘wage’ for payment of workers, and salaries for payment of senior categories of staff, developments in industry have tended to blur the distinction, as all categories of staff have to receive their payments, not in cash, but by means of cheques channeled through banks.

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  273. Personnel Management – Lecture 5

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    Motivation at work Management invests huge amounts of money, time and effort in an attempt to employ well-qualified people into the organization. A similarly huge amount of effort is expended on the training and development of workers and managers, in the hope that well-trained employees will contribute more to the achievement of organizational goals. Unfortunately, there is no guarantee that such employee will contribute their maximum, (in terms of quantity and quality of efforts), for the benefit of the organization.

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  274. Personnel Management – Lecture 6

    Vincent Afure Akpotor

    Collective bargaining To perform effectively the personnel manager in business organizations Must understand the nature structure levels and functions of collective Bargaining especially those aspect that directly influence the operations of their business. Collective bargaining is that method of determining working Conditions and terms of employment through negotiations between an employer, a group of employers or one or more employers organizations on one hand and one or more representative worker organizations on the other with a view to reaching an agreement.

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  275. PHY102 – Electricity and Magnetism – Lecture 1

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    THE PRINCIPLE OF SUPERPOSITION OF ELECTRIC FORCES Coulombs law applies to any pair of point charges. In a situation where more than two charges are present, the net force on any one charge becomes the vector sum of the forces exerted on it by the other charges. This situation is known as the principle of superposition of electric forces.

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  276. PHY102 – Electricity and Magnetism – Lecture 2

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    ELECTRIC FIELD AND ITS STRENGTH An electric field is describe to exist at a given point if a force having an electrical origin exerts its strength on a positive test charge that is placed at that point.

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  277. PHY102 – Electricity and Magnetism – Lecture 3

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    MATHEMATICAL CONSIDERATIONS OF ELECTRIC FIELD At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to: Derive the expression for the electric field strength of a point charge; Use the expression derived above to solve problems; Extend the superposition principle to electric field.

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  278. PHY107 – Experimental Physics – Lecture 1

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    WHAT IS A GRAPH A graph is a pictorial analysis of the several results which may be obtained from a given measurement in experimental physics. The purpose of graphing in experimental physics is that it is not accurate to rely upon only one measurement for calculating a given quantity.

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  279. PHY107 – Experimental Physics – Lecture 2

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    ERROR ANALYSIS There is no experiment in physics that is totally free of errors. The reason behind this is not unconnected with the fact that we are humans and the apparatuses we are using are made by humans. Therefore, the concept of error analysis should be understood so as to make your work meaningful. Your work will not, make any sense, unless you indicate the range of your accuracy.

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  280. PHY107 – Experimental Physics – Lecture 3

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    CALCULATIONS ON EXPERIMENTAL ERRORS At the end of this lesson, the students should be able to perform calculations on various types of errors.

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  281. PHY201 – Mechanics – Lecture 1

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    NEWTONIAN MECHANICS Newtonian mechanics otherwise known as classical mechanics is that branch of mechanics where dynamical interactions of material bodies are adequately described by the famous three Newton’s laws of motion. In Newtonian mechanics, physical systems are characterised by three important assumptions.

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  282. PHY201 – Mechanics – Lecture 2

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    NEWTONIAN MECHANICSThere are some fundamental principles and defining equations in classical mechanics that are necessary to be reviewed so as to get a proper understanding of classical relativity. Recall, in kinematics, the motion of a particles is normally described by the position of its representative point in space as a function of time, relative to some chosen frame of reference or coordinate system. Using the usual Cartesian coordinate system, the position of a particle at a time t in three dimension is described by its displacement vector r, as; r = xi + yj + zk

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  283. PHY201 – Mechanics – Lecture 3

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    An Overview of Astronomy and Astrophysics The word ‘astronomy’ is an extract of the Greek words ‘astron’ meaning ‘star’ and ‘nomos’ meaning ‘law’ or ‘culture’. The two terms astronomy and astrophysics may be used interchangeably but basically, astronomy refers to the study of objects and matter outside the earth’s atmosphere including their physical and chemical properties while astrophysics refers to the branch of astronomy which deals with behaviour, physical properties, dynamic processes of celestial objects and phenomena.

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  284. PHY201 – Mechanics – Lecture 4

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY In the treatment of Galilean relativity, the assumption of absolute time was a central idea. According to the concept of absolute time, two clocks initially synchronized at t = t1 = 0 will remain synchronized when they are moving relative to one another at a constant speed. A direct consequence of this assumption is that time interval measurements are invariant, Δt = Δt1, for observers in different inertial frames of reference. Similarly, simultaneous measurements of two spatial positions at an instant time results in an invariance of length, Δx = Δx1, in Galilean relativity.

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  285. PHY201 – Mechanics – Lecture 5

    Agbajor K. Godwin

    LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION The Lorentz transformation is the general linear expression which shows the relationship between time and space coordinates in different frames of reference. It is used to express the linear relation between two frames of reference namely a rest frame and a moving frame.

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  286. PHY252 – Modern Physics

    Prof. Ibiyinka Fuwape

    What are atoms? Fundamental particles of nature. Are they the smallest particles? No. Democritus in the Fifth century B.C. hypothesized that all matter (plus space and time) is composed of tiny indestructible units, called atoms.

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  287. Public Enterprise in Nigeria

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction The origin of the involvement of the Nigerian government in the setting up of public enterprises can be placed within the context of Nigeria’s colonial and postcolonial experiences. During colonial rule and after independence in 1960, it was discovered that it was imperative that the government must be involved in business activities as an entrepreneur to perform some business roles, secure economic independence and economic development for the nation because of the absence of capable indigenous entrepreneurs with enough technical knowhow and financial capacity to compete with foreign firms operating in the country then.

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  288. ROLE OF AGRICULTURE IN NIGERIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Agriculture has been regarded in recent times as the most viable route with which Nigeria can successfully meander from her current economic dilemma. Agriculture involves the science, practice and occupation of cultivating land and raising crops. It also involves the feeding, breeding and raising of livestock. The main purpose of agriculture is to provide food and raw materials for human use.

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  289. ROLE OF INDUSTRY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Industrial Sector is of great importance for economic development of country. It is historical fact that countries with strong industrial sector have showed more economic growth and development industrial sector have shows improvement in national income and promoted living standard of population.

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  290. SCOPE OF LABOUR ECONOMICS

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction The scope of labour economics covers those fields of state-activity where labour directly or indirectly involved. It is a systematic study of various theories concepts, hypothesis and steps relating to the labour class. Labour economics deal with various aspects such as labour organization, collective bargaining, wages and employment theory, man power economics. The workers are primarily concerned with security of employment upon which depends the wellbeing of the entire working class.

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  291. TEACHING AND LEARNING

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    TEACHING AND LEARNING: Teaching is undertaking certain ethical tasks or activities the intention of which is to induce learning. It involves imparting of skills, attitudes, values, knowledge, etc which bring about changes in learners’ behaviours. It can be achieved through persuasion, showing, demonstrating or telling people what to do. It could also be achieved through guiding and directing the efforts of learners; or a combination of these.

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  292. THE BASIC ECONOMIC PROBLEMS AND CONCEPTS

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Wants: Want may be defined as an insatiable desire or need by human beings to own goods or services that gives them satisfaction. The basic needs of man include; food, housing and clothing. Human needs are many. They include tangible goods like houses, cars, chairs, television set, radio, and so on. While the others are in form of services, e.g. tailoring, carpentary, medical, and so on. Human wants and needs are many and are usually described as insatiable because the means of satisfying them are limited or scarce.

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  293. THE CALCULATOR AND THE JOHN VON NEUMANN’S ACHITECTURE OF THE COMPUTER

    Ogeh, Clement O.

    Introduction The calculator is an example non programmable finite state machine. Early digital systems were made of random logics including memory which are hardwired together. They are non-programmable Finite State Machine hence they perform their functions in a predefined way determined by the logic inputs and the memory. They are very fast but not flexible. They can only perform one function since they are non-programmable.

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  294. The Concept of Equilibrium

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction The word equilibrium is derived from the Latin word equilibrium which means equal balance. Its use in economics is imported from physics. In physics it means a state of even balance in which opposing forces or tendencies neutralize each other. In economics, equilibrium implies a position of rest characterized by absence of change.

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  295. The problems of Nigeria public sector

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Available evidence shows that the performance of public service in virtually all tiers of government in Nigeria has remained very dismal, hence the present state of underdevelopment The dismal performance of public enterprises, like the former National Electric Power Authority (NEPA) and the Nigerian Telecommunication (NITEL) is very obvious in this regard.

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  296. THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE

    Dr. Oladayo, O. T

    THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE: There are different theories about intelligence none of which agree with the each other. Faculty Theory: It is the oldest theory regarding the nature of intelligence and flourished during 18th and 19th century. It is of the view that mind is made up of different faculties like reasoning, memory, discrimination, imagination, etc. These faculties are independent of each other and can be developed by vigorous training. Faculty Theory had been under criticism by experimental psychologists who disproved the existence of independent faculties in the brain.

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  297. UNEMPLOYMENT

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Unemployment is a phenomenon that occurs when a person who is actively searching for employment is unable to find work. Unemployment is often used as a measure of the health of the economy. The most frequently measure of unemployment is the unemployment rate, which is the number of unemployed people divided by the number of people in the labor force.

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  298. WHAT DOES MONETIZATION MEAN?

    Rolle Remi Ahuru

    Introduction Monetization refers to the conversion of an investment into cash, which usually happens via a liquidity event. When investors, such as venture capital or private equity firms, invest in a private company, they expect to get their money back plus a specified return within a certain period of time. The investee may flow some cash out via dividends, but the primary way in which the investors realize their return is by monetizing their investment though a sale. Monetization can occur in several ways, but the more common ones include selling to or merging with another company, or taking the company public via an initial public offering (IPO) .

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MICHAEL AND CECILIA IBRU UNIVERSITY

Ibru Village
Agbarha – Otor
Ughelli North
Delta State
Nigeria

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